|Birth||(1749-03-23)23 March 1749 Beaumont-en-Auge, Normandy,Kingdom of France|
|Birth Place||Beaumont-en-Auge, Normandy,Kingdom of France|
|Death||(1827-03-05)(aged 77) Paris,Kingdom of France|
|Died At||Paris,Kingdom of France|
|Alma Mater||University of Caen|
|Famous Research||Work incelestial mechanics Predicting the existence ofblack holes Bayesian inference Bayesian probability Laplace's equation Laplacian Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform Laplace distribution Laplace's demon Young–Laplace equation Laplace number Laplace limit Laplace invariant Laplace principle Laplace's principle of insufficient reason Laplace's method Laplace force Laplace filter Laplace functional Laplacian matrix Laplace motion Laplace plane Laplace pressure Laplace resonance Laplace's spherical harmonics Laplace smoothing Laplace expansion Laplace expansion Laplace-Bayes estimator Laplace–Stieltjes transform Laplace–Runge–Lenz vector Nebular hypothesis|
Events Occured in Scienctist Life
He was Napoleon's examiner when Napoleon attended the École Militaire in Paris in 1784.
Laplace became a count of the Empire in 1806 and was named a marquis in 1817, after the Bourbon Restoration.
Some details of Laplace's life are not known, as records of it were burned in 1925 with the family château in Saint Julien de Mailloc, near Lisieux, the home of his great-great-grandson the Comte de Colbert-Laplace.
Others had been destroyed earlier, when his house at Arcueil near Paris was looted in 1871.Laplace was born in Beaumont-en-Auge, Normandy on 23 March 1749, a village four miles west of Pont l'Évêque.
In 1765 at the age of sixteen Laplace left the "School of the Duke of Orleans" in Beaumont and went to the University of Caen, where he appears to have studied for five years and was a member of the Sphinx.
The 'École Militaire' of Beaumont did not replace the old school until 1776.
In 1783 they published their joint paper, Memoir on Heat, in which they discussed the kinetic theory of molecular motion.
However, that year admission went to Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde and in 1772 to Jacques Antoine Joseph Cousin.
Laplace was disgruntled, and early in 1773 d'Alembert wrote to Lagrange in Berlin to ask if a position could be found for Laplace there.
On 15 March 1788, at the age of thirty-nine, Laplace married Marie-Charlotte de Courty de Romanges, an eighteen-year-old woman from a 'good' family in Besançon.
Laplace's early published work in 1771 started with differential equations and finite differences but he was already starting to think about the mathematical and philosophical concepts of probability and statistics.
However, before his election to the Académie in 1773, he had already drafted two papers that would establish his reputation.
The first, Mémoire sur la probabilité des causes par les événements was ultimately published in 1774 while the second paper, published in 1776, further elaborated his statistical thinking and also began his systematic work on celestial mechanics and the stability of the Solar System.
Sir Isaac Newton had published his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 in which he gave a derivation of Kepler's laws, which describe the motion of the planets, from his laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation.
The problem had been tackled by Leonhard Euler in 1748 and Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1763 but without success.
In 1776, Laplace published a memoir in which he first explored the possible influences of a purported luminiferous ether or of a law of gravitation that did not act instantaneously.
While Newton explained the tides by describing the tide-generating forces and Bernoulli gave a description of the static reaction of the waters on Earth to the tidal potential, the dynamic theory of tides, developed by Laplace in 1775, describes the ocean's real reaction to tidal forces.
In 1776, Laplace formulated a single set of linear partial differential equations, for tidal flow described as a barotropic two-dimensional sheet flow.
Prominent among these is one read in 1783, reprinted as Part II of Théorie du Mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planètes in 1784, and in the third volume of the Mécanique céleste.
In 1783, in a paper sent to the Académie, Adrien-Marie Legendre had introduced what are now known as associated Legendre functions.
Alexis Clairaut had first suggested the idea in 1743 while working on a similar problem though he was using Newtonian-type geometric reasoning.
However, Rouse Ball alleges that the idea "was appropriated from Joseph Louis Lagrange, who had used it in his memoirs of 1773, 1777 and 1780".
The term "potential" itself was due to Daniel Bernoulli, who introduced it in his 1738 memoire Hydrodynamica.
However, according to Rouse Ball, the term "potential function" was not actually used (to refer to a function V of the coordinates of space in Laplace's sense) until George Green's 1828 An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism.
Laplace presented a memoir on planetary inequalities in three sections, in 1784, 1785, and 1786.
Further developments of these theorems on planetary motion were given in his two memoirs of 1788 and 1789, but with the aid of Laplace's discoveries, the tables of the motions of Jupiter and Saturn could at last be made much more accurate.
The former was published in 1796, and gives a general explanation of the phenomena, but omits all details.
As mentioned, the idea of the nebular hypothesis had been outlined by Immanuel Kant in 1755, and he had also suggested "meteoric aggregations" and tidal friction as causes affecting the formation of the Solar System.
The first two volumes, published in 1799, contain methods for calculating the motions of the planets, determining their figures, and resolving tidal problems.
The third and fourth volumes, published in 1802 and 1805, contain applications of these methods, and several astronomical tables.
The fifth volume, published in 1825, is mainly historical, but it gives as appendices the results of Laplace's latest researches.
In the years 1784–1787, Laplace produced some memoirs of exceptional power.
The significant among these was one issued in 1784, and reprinted in the third volume of the Méchanique céleste.
In 1806, Laplace bought a house in Arcueil, then a village and not yet absorbed into the Paris conurbation.
In 1806, Laplace was also elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
In 1812, Laplace issued his Théorie analytique des probabilités in which he laid down many fundamental results in statistics.
In 1819, he published a popular account of his work on probability.
In his Essai philosophique sur les probabilités (1814), Laplace set out a mathematical system of inductive reasoning based on probability, which we would today recognise as Bayesian.
The method of estimating the ratio of the number of favourable cases to the whole number of possible cases had been previously indicated by Laplace in a paper written in 1779.
In 1809 Gauss had derived the normal distribution from the principle that the arithmetic mean of observations gives the most probable value for the quantity measured; then, turning this argument back upon itself, he showed that, if the errors of observation are normally distributed, the least squares estimates give the most probable values for the coefficients in regression situations.
These two works seem to have spurred Laplace to complete work toward a treatise on probability he had contemplated as early as 1783.In two important papers in 1810 and 1811, Laplace first developed the characteristic function as a tool for large-sample theory and proved the first general central limit theorem.
In 1811 Laplace took a different non-Bayesian tack.
In 1814, Laplace published what is usually known as the first articulation of causal or scientific determinism:
Even though Laplace is known as the first to express such ideas about causal determinism, his view is very similar to the one proposed by Boscovich as early as 1763 in his book Theoria philosophiae naturalis.
Laplace transforms As early as 1744, Euler, followed by Lagrange, had started looking for solutions of differential equations in the form:
In 1785, Laplace took the key forward step in using integrals of this form to transform a whole differential equation from a function of time into a lower order function of space.
Laplace in 1816 was the first to point out that the speed of sound in air depends on the heat capacity ratio.
Laplace's investigations in practical physics were confined to those carried on by him jointly with Lavoisier in the years 1782 to 1784 on the specific heat of various bodies.
In November 1799, immediately after seizing power in the coup of 18 Brumaire, Napoleon appointed Laplace to the post of Minister of the Interior.
In 1814 it was evident that the empire was falling; Laplace hastened to tender his services to the Bourbons, and in 1817 during the Restoration he was rewarded with the title of marquis.
Roger Hahn in his 2005 biography disputes this portrayal of Laplace as an opportunist and turncoat, pointing out that, like many in France, he had followed the debacle of Napoleon's Russian campaign with serious misgivings.
The Laplaces, whose only daughter Sophie had died in childbirth in September 1813, were in fear for the safety of their son Émile, who was on the eastern front with the emperor.
In the second edition (1814) of the Essai philosophique, Laplace added some revealing comments on politics and governance.
Death Laplace died in Paris on 5 March 1827, which was the same day Alessandro Volta died.
Laplace was buried at Père Lachaise in Paris but in 1888 his remains were moved to Saint Julien de Mailloc in the canton of Orbec and reinterred on the family estate.
An earlier report, although without the mention of Laplace's name, is found in Antommarchi's The Last Moments of Napoleon (1825):
In 1884, however, the astronomer Hervé Faye affirmed that this account of Laplace's exchange with Napoleon presented a "strangely transformed" (étrangement transformée) or garbled version of what had actually happened.
Laplace's younger colleague, the astronomer François Arago, who gave his eulogy before the French Academy in 1827, told Faye of an attempt by Laplace to keep the garbled version of his interaction with Napoleon out of circulation.
The Swiss-American historian of mathematics Florian Cajori appears to have been unaware of Faye's research, but in 1893 he came to a similar conclusion.
Stephen Hawking said in 1999, "I don't think that Laplace was claiming that God does not exist.
But the chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas, who knew Laplace well in the 1820s, wrote that Laplace "provided materialists with their specious arguments, without sharing their convictions".
On 17 June 1809, for instance, he wrote to his son, "Je prie Dieu qu'il veille sur tes jours.
What Laplace actually said, in Exposition du système du monde (1796), was that the Pope had ordered the comet to be "exorcised" (conjuré).
It was Arago, in Des Comètes en général (1832), who first spoke of an excommunication.