John Dalton

John Dalton

John Dalton

Birth : (1766-09-06)6 September 1766 Eaglesfield,Cumberland, England

Death : 27 July 1844(1844-07-27)(aged 77) Manchester,Lancashire, England

Personal Information

Name John Dalton
Birth (1766-09-06)6 September 1766 Eaglesfield,Cumberland, England
Birth Place Eaglesfield,Cumberland, England
Death (1844-07-27)(aged 77) Manchester,Lancashire, England
Died At Manchester,Lancashire, England
Nationality British
Famous Research Atomic theory,Law of Multiple Proportions,Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures,Daltonism

Word Cloud

Events Occured in Scienctist Life

1787

In 1787 at age 21 he began his meteorological diary in which, during the succeeding 57 years, he entered more than 200,000 observations.

1793

In 1793 Dalton's first publication, Meteorological Observations and Essays, contained the seeds of several of his later discoveries but despite the originality of his treatment, little attention was paid to them by other scholars.

1860

The Ordnance Survey did not publish maps for the Lake District until the 1860s.

1818

Otley published his information in his map of 1818.

1794

In 1794, shortly after his arrival in Manchester, Dalton was elected a member of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, the "Lit & Phil", and a few weeks later he communicated his first paper on "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours", in which he postulated that shortage in colour perception was caused by discoloration of the liquid medium of the eyeball.

1995

Examination of his preserved eyeball in 1995 demonstrated that Dalton had a less common kind of colour blindness, deuteroanopia, in which medium wavelength sensitive cones are missing (rather than functioning with a mutated form of pigment, as in the most common type of colour blindness, deuteroanomaly).

1800

In 1800, Dalton became secretary of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, and in the following year he presented an important series of lectures, entitled "Experimental Essays" on the constitution of mixed gases; the pressure of steam and other vapours at different temperatures in a vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and on the thermal expansion of gases.

1801

The four essays, presented between 2 and 30 October 1801, were published in the Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester in 1802.

1802

He enunciated Gay-Lussac's law, published in 1802 by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (Gay-Lussac credited the discovery to unpublished work from the 1780s by Jacques Charles).

1814

From 1814 to 1819, Irish chemist William Higgins claimed that Dalton had plagiarised his ideas, but Higgins' theory did not address relative atomic mass.

1803

Dalton provided no indication in this paper how he had arrived at these numbers, but in his laboratory notebook, dated 6 September 1803, is a list in which he set out the relative weights of the atoms of a number of elements, derived from analysis of water, ammonia, carbon dioxide, etc.

1802

In the paper "On the Proportion of the Several Gases in the Atmosphere", read by him in November 1802, the law of multiple proportions appears to be anticipated in the words:

1817

He contributed 117 Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester from 1817 until his death in 1844 while president of that organisation.

1814

In one of them, read in 1814, he explains the principles of volumetric analysis, in which he was one of the earliest researchers.

1840

In 1840 a paper on phosphates and arsenates, often regarded as a weaker work, was refused by the Royal Society, and he was so incensed that he published it himself.

1803

In 1803, he was chosen to give a series of lectures on natural philosophy at the Royal Institution in London, and he delivered another series of lectures there in 1809–1810.

1810

In 1810, Sir Humphry Davy asked him to offer himself as a candidate for the fellowship of the Royal Society, but Dalton declined, possibly for financial reasons.

1822

In 1822 he was proposed without his knowledge, and on election paid the usual fee.

1830

Six years previously he had been made a corresponding member of the French Académie des Sciences, and in 1830 he was elected as one of its eight foreign associates in place of Davy.

1833

In 1833, Earl Grey's government conferred on him a pension of £150, raised in 1836 to £300.

1834

Dalton was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1834.A young James Prescott Joule, who later studied and published (1843) on the nature of heat and its relationship to mechanical work, was a pupil of Dalton in his last years.

1822

In 1822 he paid a short visit to Paris, where he met many distinguished resident men of science.

1837

Disability and death Dalton suffered a minor stroke in 1837, and a second in 1838 left him with a speech impairment, although he remained able to perform experiments.

1844

In May 1844 he had another stroke; on 26 July he recorded with trembling hand his last meteorological observation.

1940

Much of Dalton's written work, collected by the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, was damaged during bombing on 24 December 1940.

1877

Chantrey's large statue of Dalton, erected while Dalton was alive was placed in Manchester Town Hall in 1877.

1855

Outside it stands William Theed's statue of Dalton, erected in Piccadilly in 1855, and moved there in 1966.

2001

In 2001 the name was lost when the township was absorbed into the City of Kawartha Lakes but in 2002 the Dalton name was affixed to a new park, Dalton Digby Wildlands Provincial Park.