Emmy Noether

Emmy Noether

Emmy Noether

Birth : Amalie Emmy Noether (1882-03-23)23 March 1882 Erlangen,Bavaria,German Empire

Death : 14 April 1935(1935-04-14)(aged 53) Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania,United States

Personal Information

Name Emmy Noether
Birth (1882-03-23)23 March 1882 Erlangen,Bavaria,German Empire
Birth Place Erlangen,Bavaria,German Empire
Death (1935-04-14)(aged 53) Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania,United States
Died At Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania,United States
Nationality German
Alma Mater University of Erlangen
Fields Mathematicsandphysics
Institution ,University of Göttingen,Bryn Mawr College)
Thesis On Complete Systems of Invariants for Ternary Biquadratic Forms(1907)
Famous Research Abstract algebra,Theoretical physics,Noether's theorem,Noetherian ring,Lasker-Noether theorem
Doctoral Advisor Paul Gordan

Word Cloud

Events Occured in Scienctist Life


Amalie Emmy Noether (German: ; 23 March 1882 – 14 April 1935) was a German mathematician who made many important contributions to abstract algebra.


After completing her doctorate in 1907 under the supervision of Paul Gordan, she worked at the Mathematical Institute of Erlangen without pay for seven years.


In 1915, she was invited by David Hilbert and Felix Klein to join the mathematics department at the University of Göttingen, a world-renowned center of mathematical research.


Her habilitation was approved in 1919, allowing her to obtain the rank of Privatdozent.


Noether remained a leading member of the Göttingen mathematics department until 1933; her students were sometimes called the "Noether boys".


In 1924, Dutch mathematician B. L. van der Waerden joined her circle and soon became the leading expositor of Noether's ideas; her work was the foundation for the second volume of his influential 1931 textbook, Moderne Algebra.


By the time of her plenary address at the 1932 International Congress of Mathematicians in Zürich, her algebraic acumen was recognized around the world.


In 1935, she underwent surgery for an ovarian cyst and, despite signs of a recovery, died four days later at the age of 53.


Emmy Noether was born on 23 March 1882, the first of four children.


The eldest, Alfred, was born in 1883, was awarded a doctorate in chemistry from Erlangen in 1909, but died nine years later.


Fritz Noether, born in 1884, is remembered for his academic accomplishments; after studying in Munich he made a reputation for himself in applied mathematics.


The youngest, Gustav Robert, was born in 1889.


Very little is known about his life; he suffered from chronic illness and died in 1928.


In the spring of 1900, she took the examination for teachers of these languages and received an overall score of sehr gut (very good).


Despite these obstacles, on 14 July 1903 she passed the graduation exam at a Realgymnasium in Nuremberg.


During the 1903–1904 winter semester, she studied at the University of Göttingen, attending lectures given by astronomer Karl Schwarzschild and mathematicians Hermann Minkowski, Otto Blumenthal, Felix Klein, and David Hilbert.


She officially reentered the university in October 1904, and declared her intention to focus solely on mathematics.


In 1910 and 1911 she published an extension of her thesis work from three variables to n variables.


Gordan retired in the spring of 1910, but continued to teach occasionally with his successor, Erhard Schmidt, who left shortly afterward for a position in Breslau.


Gordan retired from teaching altogether in 1911 when Schmidt's successor Ernst Fischer arrived; Gordan died a year later in December 1912.


From 1913 to 1916 Noether published several papers extending and applying Hilbert's methods to mathematical objects such as fields of rational functions and the invariants of finite groups.


In the spring of 1915, Noether was invited to return to the University of Göttingen by David Hilbert and Felix Klein.


The paper was presented by a colleague, F. Klein on 26 July 1918 to a meeting of the Royal Society of Sciences at Göttingen.


In 1919 the University of Göttingen allowed Noether to proceed with her habilitation (eligibility for tenure).


Her oral examination was held in late May, and she successfully delivered her habilitation lecture in June 1919.


Noether's work in algebra began in 1920.


In 1924 a young Dutch mathematician, B.L. van der Waerden, arrived at the University of Göttingen.


In 1931 he published Moderne Algebra, a central text in the field; its second volume borrowed heavily from Noether's work.


From 1926 to 1930 Russian topologist Pavel Alexandrov lectured at the university, and he and Noether quickly became good friends.


In his 1935 memorial address, Alexandrov named Emmy Noether "the greatest woman mathematician of all time".


In Göttingen, Noether supervised more than a dozen doctoral students; her first was Grete Hermann, who defended her dissertation in February 1925.


Her frugal lifestyle at first was due to her being denied pay for her work; however, even after the university began paying her a small salary in 1923, she continued to live a simple and modest life.


Noether was recorded as having given at least five semester-long courses at Göttingen: Winter 1924/1925:


After she left Germany in 1933 he tried to help her gain a chair at Moscow State University through the Soviet Education Ministry.


Although this effort proved unsuccessful, they corresponded frequently during the 1930s, and in 1935 she made plans for a return to the Soviet Union.


In 1932 Emmy Noether and Emil Artin received the Ackermann–Teubner Memorial Award for their contributions to mathematics.


Noether's colleagues celebrated her fiftieth birthday in 1932, in typical mathematicians' style.


The 1932 congress is sometimes described as the high point of her career.


When Adolf Hitler became the German Reichskanzler in January 1933, Nazi activity around the country increased dramatically.


In April 1933 Noether received a notice from the Prussian Ministry for Sciences, Art, and Public Education which read: "On the basis of paragraph 3 of the Civil Service Code of 7 April 1933, I hereby withdraw from you the right to teach at the University of Göttingen.


Noether and a small team of students worked quickly through van der Waerden's 1930 book Moderne Algebra I and parts of Erich Hecke's Theorie der algebraischen Zahlen (Theory of algebraic numbers).In 1934, Noether began lecturing at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton upon the invitation of Abraham Flexner and Oswald Veblen.


In the summer of 1934 she briefly returned to Germany to see Emil Artin and her brother Fritz before he left for Tomsk.


In April 1935 doctors discovered a tumor in Noether's pelvis.


After moving to Göttingen in 1915, she produced her work for physics, the two Noether's theorems.


In the century from 1832 to Noether's death in 1935, the field of mathematics – specifically algebra – underwent a profound revolution, whose reverberations are still being felt.


Beginning with Carl Friedrich Gauss's 1832 proof that prime numbers such as five can be factored in Gaussian integers, Évariste Galois's introduction of permutation groups in 1832 (although, because of his death, his papers were published only in 1846, by Liouville), William Rowan Hamilton's discovery of quaternions in 1843, and Arthur Cayley's more modern definition of groups in 1854, research turned to determining the properties of ever-more-abstract systems defined by ever-more-universal rules.


Noether's advisor, Paul Gordan, was known as the "king of invariant theory", and his chief contribution to mathematics was his 1870 solution of the finite basis problem for invariants of homogeneous polynomials in two variables.


In 1890, David Hilbert proved a similar statement for the invariants of homogeneous polynomials in any number of variables.


In 1918, Noether published a paper on the inverse Galois problem.


In 1969, R.G. Swan found a counter-example to Noether's problem, with n = 47 and G a cyclic group of order 47 (although this group can be realized as a Galois group over the rationals in other ways).


Noether provided the resolution of this paradox, and a fundamental tool of modern theoretical physics, with Noether's first theorem, which she proved in 1915, but did not publish until 1918.


In 1943, French mathematician Claude Chevalley coined the term, Noetherian ring, to describe this property.


A major result in Noether's 1921 paper is the Lasker–Noether theorem, which extends Lasker's theorem on the primary decomposition of ideals of polynomial rings to all Noetherian rings.


It was finally solved independently by Fleischmann in 2000 and Fogarty in 2001, who both showed that the bound remains true.


In her 1926 paper, Noether extended Hilbert's theorem to representations of a finite group over any field; the new case that did not follow from Hilbert's work is when the characteristic of the field divides the order of the group.


According to the account of Alexandrov, Noether attended lectures given by Heinz Hopf and by him in the summers of 1926 and 1927, where "she continually made observations which were often deep and subtle" and he continues that,


Noether mentions her own topology ideas only as an aside in a 1926 publication, where she cites it as an application of group theory.


In a 1926–1927 course given in Vienna, Leopold Vietoris defined a homology group, which was developed by Walther Mayer, into an axiomatic definition in 1928.


On 2 January 1935, a few months before her death, mathematician Norbert Wiener wrote that Miss Noether is ... the greatest woman mathematician who has ever lived; and the greatest woman scientist of any sort now living, and a scholar at least on the plane of Madame Curie.


At an exhibition at the 1964 World's Fair devoted to Modern Mathematicians, Noether was the only woman represented among the notable mathematicians of the modern world.


The Association for Women in Mathematics holds a Noether Lecture to honor women in mathematics every year; in its 2005 pamphlet for the event, the Association characterizes Noether as "one of the great mathematicians of her time, someone who worked and struggled for what she loved and believed in.


A series of high school workshops and competitions are held in her honor in May of each year since 2001, originally hosted by a subsequent woman mathematics Privatdozent of the University of Göttingen.


The Emmy Noether Mathematics Institute in Algebra, Geometry and Function Theory in the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel was jointly founded in 1992 by the university, the German government and the Minerva Foundation with the aim to stimulate research in the above fields and to encourage collaborations with Germany.


In 2013, The European Physical Society established the Emmy Noether Distinction for Women in Physics.


Google put a memorial doodle created by Google artist Sophie Diao on Google's homepage in many countries on 23 March 2015 to celebrate Emmy Noether's 133rd birthday.


On 6 November 2020, a satellite named after her (ÑuSat 13 or "Emmy", COSPAR 2020-079E) was launched into space.


Selected works by Emmy Noether (in German) Noether, Emmy (1908),


24N, doi:10.1007/bf01464225, S2CID 121594471, archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2014Berlyne, Daniel (11 January 2014).


Noether, Emmy (1933), "Nichtkommutative Algebren" , Mathematische Zeitschrift (in German), 37: 514–41, doi:10.1007/BF01474591, S2CID 186227754 ——— (1983), Jacobson, Nathan (ed.), Gesammelte Abhandlungen (in German), Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag, pp.


Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2008.


Fleischmann, Peter (2000), "The Noether bound in invariant theory of finite groups", Advances in Mathematics, 156 (1):


Hasse, Helmut (1933), "Die Struktur der R. Brauerschen Algebrenklassengruppe über einem algebraischen Zahlkörper", Mathematische Annalen (in German), 107: 731–60, doi:10.1007/BF01448916, S2CID 128305900,


Archived from the original on 3 September 2014.


Reprinted in Dick 1981 ——— (1985), A History of Algebra: from al-Khwārizmī to Emmy Noether, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,


Personal documentsNoether Lebensläufe (in German), DE: Physikerinnen, archived from the original on 29 September 2007, retrieved 20 October 2006.


Archived from the original on 15 October 2019.