Emil Kraepelin

Emil Kraepelin

Emil Kraepelin

Birth : (1856-02-15)15 February 1856 Neustrelitz,Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz,German Confederation

Death : 7 October 1926(1926-10-07)(aged 70) Munich,Bavaria,Weimar Germany

Personal Information

Name Emil Kraepelin
Birth (1856-02-15)15 February 1856 Neustrelitz,Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz,German Confederation
Birth Place Neustrelitz,Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz,German Confederation
Death (1926-10-07)(aged 70) Munich,Bavaria,Weimar Germany
Died At Munich,Bavaria,Weimar Germany
Nationality German
Alma Mater Leipzig University University of Würzburg (MBBS, 1878) Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (Dr. hab. med., 1882)
Fields Psychiatry
Institution University of Dorpat University of Heidelberg Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)
Thesis The Place of Psychology in Psychiatry(1882)
Famous Research Classification of mental disorders, Kraepelinian dichotomy

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Events Occured in Scienctist Life


Kraepelin, whose father, Karl Wilhelm, was a former opera singer, music teacher, and later successful story teller, was born in 1856 in Neustrelitz, in the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in Germany.


Kraepelin began his medical studies in 1874 at the University of Leipzig and completed them at the University of Würzburg (1877–78).


At Würzburg he completed his Rigorosum (roughly equivalent to an MBBS viva-voce examination) in March 1878, his Staatsexamen (licensing examination) in July 1878, and his Approbation (his license to practice medicine; roughly equivalent to an MBBS) on 9 August 1878.


From August 1878 to 1882, he worked with Bernhard von Gudden at the University of Munich.


Returning to the University of Leipzig in February 1882, he worked in Wilhelm Heinrich Erb's neurology clinic and in Wundt's psychopharmacology laboratory.


On 3 December 1883 he completed his umhabilitation ("rehabilitation" = habilitation recognition procedure) at Munich.


For the Use of Students and Physicians), was first published in 1883 and was expanded in subsequent multivolume editions to Ein Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie (A Textbook: Foundations of Psychiatry and Neuroscience).


In 1884, he became senior physician in the Prussian provincial town of Leubus, Silesia Province, and the following year he was appointed director of the Treatment and Nursing Institute in Dresden.


On 1 July 1886, at the age of 30, Kraepelin was named Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Dorpat (today the University of Tartu) in what is today Estonia (see Burgmair et al., vol.


Four years later, on 5 December 1890, he became department head at the University of Heidelberg, where he remained until 1904.


In 1903, Kraepelin moved to Munich to become Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at the University of Munich.


In 1908, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


In 1912, at the request of the DVP (Deutscher Verein für Psychiatrie; German Association for Psychiatry), of which he was the head from 1906–1920, he began plans to establish a centre for research.


Following a large donation from the Jewish German-American banker James Loeb, who had at one time been a patient, and promises of support from "patrons of science", the German Institute for Psychiatric Research was founded in 1917 in Munich.


In 1924 it came under the auspices of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science.


The ninth and final edition of his Textbook was published in 1927, shortly after his death.


When he first introduced this concept as a diagnostic entity in the fourth German edition of his Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie in 1893, it was placed among the degenerative disorders alongside, but separate from, catatonia and dementia paranoides.


In the sixth edition of the Lehrbuch in 1899 all three of these clinical types are treated as different expressions of one disease, dementia praecox.


In addition, as Kraepelin accepted in 1920, "It is becoming increasingly obvious that we cannot satisfactorily distinguish these two diseases"; however, he maintained that "On the one hand we find those patients with irreversible dementia and severe cortical lesions.


However, from 1896 to his death in 1926 he held to the speculation that these insanities (particularly dementia praecox) would one day probably be found to be caused by a gradual systemic or "whole body" disease process, probably metabolic, which affected many of the organs and nerves in the body but affected the brain in a final, decisive cascade.


In fact from 1904 Kraepelin changed the section heading to "The born criminal", moving it from under "Congenital feeble-mindedness" to a new chapter on "Psychopathic personalities".


Kraepelin had referred to psychopathic conditions (or "states") in his 1896 edition, including compulsive insanity, impulsive insanity, homosexuality, and mood disturbances.


From 1904, however, he instead termed those "original disease conditions, and introduced the new alternative category of psychopathic personalities.


In the eighth edition from 1909 that category would include, in addition to a separate "dissocial" type, the excitable, the unstable, the Triebmenschen driven persons, eccentrics, the liars and swindlers, and the quarrelsome.


Upon moving to become Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at the University of Munich in 1903, Kraepelin increasingly wrote on social policy issues.


Abridged and clumsy English translations of the sixth and seventh editions of his textbook in 1902 and 1907 (respectively) by Allan Ross Diefendorf (1871–1943), an assistant physician at the Connecticut Hospital for the Insane at Middletown, inadequately conveyed the literary quality of his writings that made them so valuable to practitioners.