|Birth||(1629-04-14)14 April 1629 The Hague,Dutch Republic|
|Birth Place||The Hague,Dutch Republic|
|Death||(1695-07-08)(aged 66) The Hague, Dutch Republic|
|Died At||The Hague, Dutch Republic|
|Alma Mater||University of Leiden University of Angers|
|Fields||Natural Philosophy Physics Mathematics Astronomy Horology|
|Institution||Royal Society of London
French Academy of Sciences)
|Famous Research||Titan Explanation ofSaturn's rings Centrifugal force Collisionformulae Gambler's ruin Pendulum clock Huygens–Fresnel principle Wave theory Huygens' engine Birefringence Evolute Huygenian eyepiece 31 equal temperamentmusical tuning Huygens–Steiner theorem|
Events Occured in Scienctist Life
His most famous invention, however, was the pendulum clock in 1656, which was a breakthrough in timekeeping and became the most accurate timekeeper for almost 300 years.
In 1659, Huygens was the first to derive geometrically the now standard formulae for the centripetal force and centrifugal force in his work De vi centrifuga.
Huygens was also the first to identify the correct laws of elastic collision in his work De motu corporum ex percussione, but his findings were not published until 1703, after his death.
In the field of optics, he is best known for his wave theory of light, which he proposed in 1678 and described in 1690 in his Treatise on Light, which is regarded as the first mathematical theory of light.
His theory was initially rejected in favor of Isaac Newton's corpuscular theory of light, until Augustin-Jean Fresnel adopted Huygens' principle in 1818 and showed that it could explain the rectilinear propagation and diffraction effects of light.
Huygens invented the pendulum clock in 1656, which he patented the following year.
In addition to this invention, his research in horology resulted in an extensive analysis of the pendulum in his 1673 book Horologium Oscillatorium, which is regarded as one of the most important seventeenth-century works in mechanics.
In 1655, Huygens began grinding lenses with his brother Constantijn in order to build telescopes to conduct astronomical research.
He eventually developed in 1662 what is now called the Huygenian eyepiece, a telescope with two lenses, which diminished the amount of dispersion.
As a mathematician, Huygens developed the theory of evolutes and was a pioneer on probability, writing his first treatise on probability theory in 1657 entitled Van Rekeningh in Spelen van Gluck.
Early life Christiaan Huygens was born on 14 April 1629 in The Hague, into a rich and influential Dutch family, the second son of Constantijn Huygens.
She died in 1637, shortly after the birth of Huygens' sister.
In 1644 Huygens had as his mathematical tutor Jan Jansz de Jonge Stampioen, who assigned the 15-year-old a demanding reading list on contemporary science.
His father sent Huygens to study law and mathematics at the University of Leiden, where he studied from May 1645 to March 1647.
Frans van Schooten was an academic at Leiden from 1646, and also a private tutor to Huygens and his elder brother, replacing Stampioen on the advice of Descartes.
After two years, from March 1647, Huygens continued his studies at the newly founded Orange College, in Breda, where his father was a curator: the change occurred because of a duel between his brother Lodewijk and another student.
He completed his studies in August 1649.
Mersenne wrote to Constantijn on his son's talent for mathematics, and flatteringly compared him to Archimedes (3 January 1647).
In 1654, Huygens returned to his father's house in The Hague, and was able to devote himself entirely to research.
Subsequently, Huygens developed a broad range of correspondents, though picking up the threads after 1648 was hampered by the five-year Fronde in France.
Visiting Paris in 1655, Huygens called on Ismael Boulliau to introduce himself.
The Parisian group of savants that had gathered around Mersenne held together into the 1650s, and Mylon, who had assumed the secretarial role, took some trouble from then on to keep Huygens in touch.
Through Pierre de Carcavi Huygens corresponded in 1656 with Pierre de Fermat, whom he admired greatly, though this side of idolatry.
The first work Huygens put in print was Theoremata de quadratura (1651) in the field of quadrature.
Quadrature was a live issue in the 1650s, and through Mylon, Huygens intervened in the discussion of the mathematics of Thomas Hobbes.
Huygens studied spherical lenses from a theoretical point of view in 1652–3, obtaining results that remained unpublished until Isaac Barrow (1669).
He began grinding his own lenses in 1655, collaborating with his brother Constantijn.
He designed in 1662 what is now called the Huygenian eyepiece, with two lenses, as a telescope ocular.
Lenses were also a common interest through which Huygens could meet socially in the 1660s with Baruch Spinoza, who ground them professionally.
Huygens wrote the first treatise on probability theory, De ratiociniis in ludo aleae ("On Reasoning in Games of Chance", 1657).
In 1662 Sir Robert Moray sent Huygens John Graunt's life table, and in time Huygens and his brother Lodewijk worked on life expectancy.
On 3 May 1661, Huygens observed the planet Mercury transit over the Sun, using the telescope of instrument maker Richard Reeve in London, together with astronomer Thomas Streete and Reeve.
Huygens passed to Hevelius a manuscript of Jeremiah Horrocks on the transit of Venus, 1639, which thereby was printed for the first time in 1662.
The Royal Society of London elected him a Fellow in 1663.
In France The Montmor Academy was the form the old Mersenne circle took after the mid-1650s.
During 1663 he made what was his third visit to Paris; the Montmor Academy closed down, and Huygens took the chance to advocate a more Baconian programme in science.
In 1666 he moved to Paris and earned a position at Louis XIV's new French Academy of Sciences.
Robert Hooke for the Royal Society lacked the urbanity to handle the situation, in 1673.
Papin moved to England in 1678, and continued to work in this area.
Using the Paris Observatory (completed in 1672), Huygens made further astronomical observations.
In 1678 he introduced Nicolaas Hartsoeker to French scientists such as Nicolas Malebranche and Giovanni Cassini.
It was in Paris, also, that Huygens met the young diplomat Gottfried Leibniz, there in 1672 on a vain mission to meet Arnauld de Pomponne, the French Foreign Minister.
At this time Leibniz was working on a calculating machine, and he moved on to London in early 1673 with diplomats from Mainz; but from March 1673 Leibniz was tutored in mathematics by Huygens.
Later life Huygens moved back to The Hague in 1681 after suffering serious depressive illness.
In 1684, he published Astroscopia Compendiaria on his new tubeless aerial telescope.
He attempted to return to France in 1685 but the revocation of the Edict of Nantes precluded this move.
His father died in 1687, and he inherited Hofwijck, which he made his home the following year.
On his third visit to England, in 1689, Huygens met Isaac Newton on 12 June.
Huygens observed the acoustical phenomenon now known as flanging in 1693.
He died in The Hague on 8 July 1695, and was buried in an unmarked grave in the Grote Kerk there, as was his father before him.
After his first visit to England in 1661, when he attended a meeting of the Gresham College group in April and learned directly about Boyle's air pump experiments, Huygens spent time in late 1661 and early 1662 replicating the work.
It proved a long process, brought to the surface an experimental issue ("anomalous suspension") and the theoretical issue of horror vacui, and ended in July 1663 as Huygens became a Fellow of the Royal Society.
He studied elastic collisions in the 1650s but delayed publication for over a decade.
He passed them on in person to William Brouncker and Christopher Wren in London, in 1661.
What Spinoza wrote to Henry Oldenburg about them, in 1666 which was during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, was guarded.
Huygens had actually worked them out in a manuscript De motu corporum ex percussione in the period 1652–6.
The war ended in 1667, and Huygens announced his results to the Royal Society in 1668.
In 1659 he derived the now standard formula for the centripetal force, exerted on an object describing a circular motion, for instance by the string to which it is attached.
The publication of the general formula for this force in 1673 was a significant step in studying orbits in astronomy.
His work on pendulums came very close to the theory of simple harmonic motion; but the topic was covered fully for the first time by Newton, in Book II of his Principia Mathematica (1687).
In 1678 Leibniz picked out of Huygens's work on collisions the idea of conservation law that Huygens had left implicit.
Optics Huygens is remembered especially for his wave theory of light, which he first communicated in 1678 to the Paris Académie des sciences.
Huygens assumes that the speed of light is finite, as had been shown in an experiment by Ole Christensen Roemer in 1679, but which Huygens is presumed to have already believed.
Huygens had experimented in 1672 with double refraction (birefringence) in Icelandic spar (calcite), a phenomenon discovered in 1669 by Rasmus Bartholin.
Newton in his Opticks of 1704 proposed instead a corpuscular theory of light.
He is credited as the inventor of the magic lantern, described in correspondence of 1659.
In 1656, inspired by earlier research into pendulums by Galileo Galilei, he invented the pendulum clock, which was a breakthrough in timekeeping and became the most accurate timekeeper for the next 275 years until the 1930s.
Pierre Séguier refused him any French rights, Simon Douw of Rotterdam copied the design in 1658, and Ahasuerus Fromanteel also, in London.
The oldest known Huygens-style pendulum clock is dated 1657 and can be seen at the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden.
Alexander Bruce elbowed into the field in 1662, and Huygens called in Sir Robert Moray and the Royal Society to mediate and preserve some of his rights.
Trials continued into the 1660s, the best news coming from a Royal Navy captain Robert Holmes operating against the Dutch possessions in 1664.
By the time of the Dutch East India Company expedition of 1686 to the Cape of Good Hope, Huygens was able to supply the correction retrospectively.
In 1673 Huygens published Horologium Oscillatorium sive de motu pendulorum, his major work on pendulums and horology.
In February 2006, a long-lost copy of Hooke's handwritten notes from several decades of Royal Society meetings was discovered in a cupboard in Hampshire, England.
In 1675, Huygens patented a pocket watch.
In 1655, Huygens proposed that Saturn was surrounded by a solid ring, "a thin, flat ring, nowhere touching, and inclined to the ecliptic.
His drawing, the first such known of the Orion nebula, was published in Systema Saturnium in 1659.
In 1659, Huygens was the first to observe a surface feature on another planet, Syrtis Major, a volcanic plain on Mars.
Cosmotheoros Shortly before his death in 1695, Huygens completed Cosmotheoros.
At his direction, it was to be published only posthumously by his brother, which Constantijn did in 1698.
During his lifetime 1639 – His father Constantijn Huygens in the midst of his five children by Adriaen Hanneman, painting with medallions, Mauritshuis,
C. Huygens (translated by Silvanus P. Thompson), Traité de la lumière or Treatise on light, London: Macmillan, 1912, archive.org/details/treatiseonlight031310mbp; New York: Dover, 1962; Project Gutenberg, 2005, gutenberg.org/ebooks/14725;
Huygens–Fokker Foundation —on Huygens' 31 equal temperament and how it has been used Christiaan Huygens on the 25 Dutch Guilder banknote of the 1950s.